worldhistory10/4/17

Term Definition
power vacuum Invasions on Rome by Barbarians created power vacuum of NO civil leadership, NO central government. Nobles became involved in church instead of civil affairs. People left urban areas and went to countryside. WHO or WHAT will take over?
Byzantine Empire Remnants of EASTERN empire of Rome. Lasted until 1453. Church is part of the state. Preserved much of the knowledge of the ancient world. Science connected to ancient philosophy. Capital Constantinople. Built Hagia Sophia. Oligarchical/latifundia
Constantine United the 2 halves of the Roman Empire after it had split. Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. Moved capital to Constantinople.
Justinian I Ruled Byzantine Empire from 527-565. Empire reached its greatest extent and held after reconquering much of the Mediterranean coast and held for 200 more years.
Maurice Ruled Byzantine Empire from 582-602. Expanded empire's eastern frontier and established northern border. Assassination caused the Byzantine-Sasanian War which exhausted the Empire's resources and led to land losses to the Muslims.
Hagia Sophia shrine built in the Byzantine Empire that is now a museum in Istanbul.
Byzantine Constitution Constitution of Byzantine Empire: it was the earthly copy of the Kingdom of Heaven. Just as God ruled in heaven, the Emporor should rule on earth. (Great Schism)
Bishop of Rome Head of Church of Rome (Catholics) believed Bishop of Rome (pope) to have authority over all other religious leaders
Apostolic See any see attributed to one of the apostles of Jesus
Lords/BArons Took over society of Western part of empire after fall of Rome due to anarchy, raids by Barbarians, Marriages seen as best way to gain political stability. Many arranged marriages.
Apostolic See any episcopal see whose foundation is attributed to one or more of the apostles of Jesus.
Fiefdom a fief was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by overlord to vassal how held it in fealty (fee). Communities where no
Lords/BArons Took over society of Western part of empire after fall of Rome due to anarchy, raids by Barbarians, Marriages seen as best way to gain political stability. Many arranged marriages.
Vassals Tenants in a fiefdom
Great Schism Split in Christian beliefs led to formation of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Catholics believed that Christ's deity was confirmed by Pope. E.O. do not believe in Pope's authority.
Fiefdom a fief was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by overlord to vassal how held it in fealty (fee). Communities where nobles agreed to protect communities of farmers.
Feudalism Fiefdom among the Roman nobles became known as feudalism. Emerged as result of decentralization of an empire. No bureaucratic control. Aristocracy in charge of land. Formal obligations and oaths.
Holy Trinity Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Established by Nicaean Council.
Council of Nicaea 325 AD. Proclaimed Jesus' divinity. Belief in the trinity. Establishes Easter.
5 Patriarchs a 2nd council that met in 381. Elevated the see of Constantinople. Divided Roman Empire into 5 dioceses. Pope disagreed with Constantinople being more important than Alexandria.
Byzantine Diplomacy 1 Drew neighbors into network of relations controlled by the empire. New ruler welcomed into family of kings. Assimilation of Byzantine social attitudes and values, creation of laws. Limited military force. Needed diplomacy to survive.
Byzantine Diplomacy 2 Very sneaky and deceitful. Play other empires against each other.
Photios I of Constantinople Patriarch of Constantinople. Suspicious how he came to power in short time. Called for excommunication of Pope Nicholas I in 863: serious schism in church!
Iconoclasm "breaker of icons." deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments usually for political or religious motives.
Muhammed Greatest prophet in Islam
Quran sacred religious text of Islam
5 pillars of Islam Testimony, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, pilgrimmage
Jihad (2 types) Means "to strive or to struggle" (in the way of God) 2 types are "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare
Muslim Science, Math, Technological Advances Muslims in the Byzantine Empire were responsible for the advances of these things
Cordoba Under control of the Moors (under the authority of the caliphate of Damascus) Becomes center of Islam in Europe.
Battle of Tours Took place in a town in France called Tour in 732.
Charles Martel "The hammer' (688-741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader. Establishes unity in Gaul (France). Establishes many of the norms for knights in feudal courts. Develops the system of 'feudalism'.
Charlemagne (742-814) King of the Franks (768-814). "Carolingian Empire". Warrior. Unites France. Conquers much of Germany and Italy, Drives back Muslims from Spain. "Philosopher King" Reading + Writing. Christian; Agreed with Byzantine Iconoclasm.
William the Conqueror 1066: Battle of Hastings. Conquers England. Develop "common law", which included a jury and customs, and also developed a semi-strong centralized state. These two developments are reasons for the Magna Carta.
Battle of Hastings 1066: Normans defeat the Anglo-Saxons. Develops a semi-strong central authority and develops the "Common Law" tradition.
"Common Law" Law based on custom and court rulings and idea of a jury was introduced
The Magna Carta Formed in 1215 and stated two basic ideas: Nobles had certain rights (right to wage private warfare against the crown if they felt he did anything to over step his 'authority'); Says the king had to obey 'the law'.
Vikings groups of seafaring raiders from Scandinavia. Raid all of Europe. End up trading with Constantinople. Discover North America 400 years before Columbus.
Russians Began in Ukraine in 700s. Called Slavs. Gravitate toward Byzantine Empire for trade and religion. Kiev center for trade and where they converted to Christianity. Adapt the Greek alphabet, Byzantine art, music and architecture.
Tsar Ruler in Russia. Russian word for Caesar
Mughal Empire In 1526, Turkish and Mongol invaders again poured into India. They swept away the Sultan in Delhi and set up the Mughal Dynasty. It ruled India from 1526 to 1827. It was a monarchy with a "Federalized" government
Federalized Government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a politically entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government
"Pax Mongolica" Vast transcontinental empire connected the east with the west with an enforced "Pax Mongolica" allowing trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia
The Ottomans The Ottomans were Turkish speaking nomadic people from central Asia. In the 1300's the moved across Asia and into Eastern Europe. Take advantage of a fragmented empires who were falling apart (Byzantine Empire and the Mongol Empire)
Tang Dynasty After the Han Dynasty collapsed 220 AD, China was divided for 400 years. Eventually Tan Taizong, led a successful revolt and established his own dynasty, The Tang (618-907) Tang collapsed in 907
Ming Dynasty (part 1 of 2) The Ming dynasty eventually drives the Mongols out (1368) Reassert Chinese greatness: Civil service, Confucian learning became the road to success in society, exploration:early Ming rulers sent fleets into distant waters.
Ming Dynasty (part 2 of 2) Zheng He led ships and sailors all the way to the east coast of Africa.
Korea Was heavily influenced by Chinese culture and philosophy. But maintained many of its own traditions. Improved Chinese technology: Block printing and Simplified language and made it easier to read and write.
Civil Service Exam Created and/or formed with/by social mobility
Shogun Real power in Feudal Japan lied in the Shogun, or the supreme military commander
Daimyo These great warrior lords were called Daimyo. They granted land to Samurai: "meaning those who serve"
Samurai "Meaning those who serve" Samurai became fighting aristocracy in a constant struggle for power.
Tokugawa Shogunate In 1603, the Tokugawa unified Japan. Brought peace and stability, imposed central government control, created a unified, orderly society, and trade flourished. Shoguns were conservative and tried to preserve samurai virtues and ancient beliefs.
Papua New Guinea People migrated across land bridge to Australia. Papua New Guinea developed into the most complex ethnic and linguistic place on earth. All of these people started from same common languages and traditions
Melanesians New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji. Once the sea levels rose these places became isolated. The ocean divided these people!!! People were subsistence farmers and hunters. Fear of strangers!
Micronesians Lack of land for farming and materials (particularly fresh water). People were innovative and forced to create new strategies to survive. Societies existed on groups of small islands close to each other.
Polynesians Fiji was the source for Polynesian culture (They set out across the ocean in 300 AD). Double Hulled Canoe!!!!!!!!!!!! (Greatest technological innovations of sea travel!!!!!!!!) Greatest seafarers the world has ever seen!
Double Hulled Canoe Greatest technological innovations of sea travel!!!!! Greatest seafarers the world has ever seen! Islands became additions to the existing network; Deliberately navigated too! Stars, currents, shore alignments,wind,swells,cloud movement,birds all wereused

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