Question Answer
Laboratory equipment and other inanimate objects serve as what in the chain of infection? Reservoir
The chain of infection includes Infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
Why will a supervisor be concerned about a cut on your hand? Your cut can be a portal of entry that could expose you to infectious agent
What is centrifuging an uncapped tube of urine most likely to produce? Aerosols
Which guidelines tell laboratory personnel to consider all patients as possible carriers of blood-borne pathogens? Standard precautions
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend that universal precautions be followed? Specimens containing visible blood
What is the approximate number of nephrons contained in each kidney? 1 million- 1.5 million
What is the order of blood flow through the nephron? Afferent, efferent, perritubular capillaries, vasa recta
The total renal blood flow is 1200 mL/min
Describe glomerular filtrate Protein-free ultrafilitrate
Clearance tests used to determine the glomerular filtration rate must measure what kind of substances Neither reabsorbed or secreted by the tubules
The most routinely used laboratory method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is eGFR
What is the renal function that is most frequently the first affected by early renal disease? Tubular reabsorption
Why is measurement of urine osmolality is a more accurate measure of renal concentrating ability then SG? Osmolality is influenced equally by small and large molecules
The pigment responsible for pink precipitate in refrigerated urine Uroerythrin
The addition of dilute acetic acid to a cloudy urine specimen will dissolve Amorphous phosphate
Slightly warming a turbid urine may dissolve Amorphous urates
The SG of urine is directly proportional to Dissolved solids
Bacterial decomposition of urea produces urine that has an odor resembling Ammonia
Are clear red urine and red plasma associated with myoglobinuria? NO
Cause of prerenal proteinuria Multiple myeloma
When using the reagent strip microalbumin method, fals-negative results may occur in the the presence of Highly dilute urine
The albumin to creatinine ratio may be elevated in patients whose urine contains Glucose
Galactose will react with Clinitest but not chemstrip
The recommended centrifugation setting for preparation of the urine sediment is 5 min, 400 rmf
The number of fields that should be examined when quantitative urinary sediment constituents is 10
The purpose of including glucose as a significant chemical parameter by a laboratory that performs macroscopic screening Candida albicans
To detect the presence of casts, the sediment is examined using Lower power, low light
Identification of oval bodies can be verified using Polarized light
The presence of crenated RBCs in the urine sediment is associated with Glomerular bleeding
Dilute alkaline urine should be examined carefully for the presence of Ghost RBCs
Urine sediments containing increased WBCs should be observed closely for the presence of Bacteria
The type of cells that line the bladder and ureters Transitional
The organisms attached to a clue cell are Gardena vaginitis
The type of cell most likely to appear stained with bilirubin Renal tubular
Urinary casts are formed in the Distal and collecting tubules
Hyaline casts may degenerate into Waxy casts
Diseases affecting the glomerulus are primarily caused by Immunological disorders
The major cause of the nephrotic syndrome in children is Minimal change Disease
Goodpasture syndrome and wegeners granulomatosis are associated with the presence of which urine sediment RBC casts
The presence of increased renal tubular epithelial cell casts is most indicative of Acute tubular necrosis
A positive Guthrie test is interpreted by observing Alkaptonuria
A false positive reaction for urinary ketones could be present in patients who have Melanuria
A positive urine clinitest reaction can be seen in patients with Bacterial growth occurs around the positive disc/patient disc
The finding of persistent ketonuria in a newborn is Associated with methylmalonic aciduria
The presence of argentaffin cell can be detected by the presence in the urine of 5-HIAA
The finding of a "blue diaper" is indicative of a defect in the metabolism of Typtophan
Porphyrins are intermediary compounds in the formation of Heme
The most common cause of acquired porphyria is Lead poisoning
Which compounds does not react directly with either Ehrlich reagent or fluorescence Aminolevulimic acid
Where is CSF formed and what is reabsorbed by? Chroid plexus, arachnoid granulation
The average volume of CSF is 90-150 mL
A xanthochromic CSF specimen will appear Yellow; clear
The presence of hemosiderin containing macrophages in CSF indicates Cerebral hemorrhage
To determine is a questionable specimen is semen, what should the specimen be tested for Acid phosphate
Absence of normal sperm acrosome can Affect ovum penetration
When should normal semen liquefy Within 1hr
What is semen viscosity most closely related to? Specimen liquefaction
What should sperm motility be after 1hr? Should be 50%
What would an increased amount of prostatic fluid in a semen specimen do? Have a low pH
When using Kruger's strict morphology criteria, what is the normal value? 14% normal forms
Is semen pH of 6.0 associated with decrease in prostatic fluid? Yes
Which are the crystals found in synovial fluid during attacks of gout? Monosodium urate
What is synovial fluid produced by? Ultrafiltration of plasma
A clear, pale yellow synovial fluid with good viscosity and a WBC count of 1000 should be classified as Non-inflammatory
A milky-appearing synovial fluid can be associated with the presence of Monosodium urate crystals
Which crystals would most likely be present on conjunction with calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluid? Hydroxyapatite
The presence of neutrophils containing dark granules in the synovial fluid is associated with
What is the predominate cell in normal synovial fluid?
Crystals that appear to be rhombic-shaped and are blue when aligned with the slow vibration of red compensated polarized light are Calcium pyrophosphate
What is peritoneal lavage performed for?
Exudate fluids usually result from Inflammation of serous membrane
The pathologic accumulation of fluid in a body cavity is termed a/an
Pleural fluid can be better classified as to transudative or exudative origin by
A decrease in the number of mesothelial cells seen on a pleural fluid differential indicates TB
A pericardial exudate from a patient diagnosed with AIDS might be treated with
A peritoneal fluid with a positive CEA and a negative CA 125 (cancer agent) indicates Malignancy of gastrointestinal
Amniotic fluid is formed by all of the following except Fetal swallowing
A dark green amniotic fluid is associated with
The presence of a fetal neural tube disorder may be detected by
What is meconium composed of?
The normal brown color of the feces is produced by Urobilin
The term occult blood in fecal analysis can indicate Hidden blood
What is the most likely reason a physician would collect vaginal fluid for analysis?
A vaginal pH value of 6.0 could indicate BV
Normal Flora is predominantly of which genus Lactobacillus sp
Which cellular elements are seen in patients with desquamative inflammatory vaginitis WBCs, and RBCs
The fetal fibronectin test is used to determine which condition? Preterm delivery
The test for placental alpha-1 microalbumin protein is used to determine Fetal membrane rupture
In patients with alkaptonuria, the abnormal metabolite that is present in the urine is
Rheumatoid arthritis
Detect intra-abdominal bleeding
Fluid-to-serum cholesterol ratio
An acid fast stain
Increased maternal serum alpha fetoprotein
Bowel constituents
Homogentistic acid

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