Soil formation

Term Definition
Soil A loose mixture of weathered rock fragments, organic materials, water, and air that can support the growth of vegetation.
Soil composition What is made of a mixture of rock particles, minerals, decayed organic material, water, and air.
Humus Is a dark colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay. Makes the soil dark. Lighter soil has less.
Fertile soil Rich in the nutrients that plants need to grow.
Soil texture The soil quality that is based on the proportions of soil particles. Depends on the size of the soil particles.
Soil horizons Layers of soil
Horizon a Topsoil with humus crumbly. Dark brown soil is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals.
Horizon b Subsoil consists of clay and other partials washed down from horizon a, but little humus.
Horizon c Rock fragments (weathered rock) forms as bedrock weathers and rock breaks up into soil
Horizon r Bedrock- the solid rock at the bottom
Loam Soil that is made up of equal parts of clay. Sand, and silt best for growing most types of plants
Decomposition How humus is formed. Rotting and decaying
Leaching The remove from substances that can be dissolved from rock or layers of soil due to the passing of water.
Parent rock The sources of weathered fragments (minerals fragments or sediments)
Bed rock Is the solid layer of rock beneath the soil.
Transported soil Soil that is blow, washed away, or moved by glaciers.
Residual soil The soil that remains above its parent rock
Litter Loose layer of leaves on the ground from plants

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