Humidity and Aersol

Question Answer
Humidity Water that is in the gaseous state. (Water vapor)
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure In order to calculate the partial pressure of a gas containing humidity, the water vapor must be accounted for when adding the partial pressures.
Aerosols Particulate matter suspended in a gas
Aerosols can be _____ or ______. Liquid ; solid
Example of an aerosolized solid Antibiotic medication by powder
Aerosolized liquid Bland aerosol therapy and for administration of medications directly to the pulmonary system. (Albuterol)
The actually water content when a gas is fully saturated Maximum absolute humidity
Anhydrous Without any water content
Humidity expressed as a percentage of a gas's capacity (water content when fully saturated) Relative humidity
How do you find relative humidity? Divide the actual water content of a gas by it capacity at that temperature
You are administering a humidified gas containing 23 mg/L water. The temp of the gas is 30 degrees C. What is he relative humidity of the gas you are administering? .757 or 75.7%(23/30.35)
Actual humidity Relative x capacity
The process of water moving from a liquid to a gaseous state. Evaporation
As the temperature of a liquid is increased, the kinetic activity of its molecules _______. Increase
The physiological term that refers to the difference between inspired gas's water content and the water content of gas at body temp and pressure. Humidity deficit
At body temp and pressure (BTPS) inspired gas at 37 C contains ____ of water, and exerts a partial pressure of _____, and is fully saturated. 44mg/L; 47mmHg
Humidity deficit equals Body humidity – actual humidity
Physical characteristics of Aerosols Particularly size and mass;Physical nature of particles;Hygroscopic;Tonicity;Electrical Charge
Factors influencing Aerosol deposition the Airways Partial size and Gravity;Inertia;Temp and Humidity;Respiratory Pattern;Application of Flow
When the inspired air is fully saturated 100% it holds ____ and exerts a pressure of ____. 44mg/L; 47 torr
The smaller the aerosol particle The greater tendency toward stability
The larger the particle, The greater it's tendency to rain out.
The greater the concentration of particles, the greater the tendency for individual particles to coalesce into larger particles and rain out Concentration (stability of aerosols)
Refers to the depth within the respiratory tract that an aerosol reaches Penetration
The rain out of aerosol particles within the respiratory tract Deposition
Depth of penetration and volume of deposition depend on Gravity
Factors of penetration and deposition Kinetic energy ; inertial impaction
Ideal particle size for therapeutic use in respiratory care is .5 – 3 microns
Characteristics of aerosol particles Inertial impaction; hygroscopic properties; ventilators pattern
To obtain optimal particle penetration, the patient should ________ Take slow, moderately deep breaths with a 2-3 sec breath hold at end inspiration
Dry powder aerosols require a ____ inspiratory flow rate. Fast
With large volume Aerosols a ____ ____ should be used. Face mask
Inhaled particles are removed by 3 mechanisms Primary: Mucociliary escalator;Normal cough mechanism;Phagocytosis by type lll alveolar cells
Partial pressure of nitrogen .78
Partial pressure of oxygen .21
Partial pressure of CO2 .003
What causes water particles to continue to move i. a straight line? Inertia
What are some hazards that can happen when a patient is given aerosol therapy? Fluid overload, bronchospasm, cross contamination
What is described as particles becoming bigger due to condensation of collision or running into each other? Coalescence
Room humidifier (cool mist) works on the principle of _______ _______. Centrifugal force
The hydrosphere works on the _____ principle. Babbington
Breaks water down into smaller particles Baffle
A low efficiency type of humidifier due to the limited exposure to the water would be a _____ _____. Passive humidifier
What's the difference between sidestream nebulizers and mainstream nebulizers? Sidestream have a nebulizers that is placed adjacent to the flow of carrier gas and mainstream the nebulizer is placed directly in the path of the carrier gas.
Sidestream nebulizers produce ______ particles. Small
If a patient had the croup, the _____ (mist tent) would be the best option. Mainstream
Dried secretions can swell while doing aerosol therapy and cause blocked airways. Some patients have ______ when given aerosol therapy. Bronchiospasm
Factors that can affect deposition of aerosol particles can be: Gravity, viscosity of gas, kinetic energy, ventilation pattern, heating and humidifying the gas, physical nature of the particle, particle inertia
Relative humidity is the actual amount of moisture compared to _____ but reported in a ______ of that gas's capacity at that temp. The capacity; percentage
If heat is added to a mist nebulizer it will _______ the amount of liquid that can be delivered to the airways versus a cool mist nebulizer. Increase
A device that just adds water vapor to the air. Room humidifier
Primary goal of a humidifier is To prevent excess drying of the airways
The ideal particle size for an aerosol would be .5-3 microns
Humidity can also be described as Water vapor
How does a bedside or room humidifier work? A spinning disc (centrifugal force is applied using the spinning disc)
The ______ _______ is found in a ultrasonic nebulizer. Piezoelectric transducer
What can happen when humidity is used in a system? Rain out
How can you prevent rain out? Reduce the length of the tubing, user larger bore tubing, don't let the tubing droop causing water to collect, and using a heater will improve rain out
What is a pass over humidifier? Gas flow passed over a reservoir of water.
The humidifier operates by bubbling gas up through a reservoir of water. Bubble humidifier
This humidifier is unique in that aerosol produced by a high output nebulizer is evaporated into the gas flowing through the device, producing high humidity out-puts at high flow rates. Misty Ox Laminar Diffuser Humidifier
The ___________ humidifier is a microprocessor controlled wick type humidifier that incorporates provisions for a heated wire circuit. Hudson RCI ConchaTherm Humidifier
This humidifier is a servo-controlled wick humidifier. Can be used with heated wire circuits and capable of delivering heated humidified gas between 29-40 degrees C. Fisher Paykel Humidifier
Simple devices whose function can replace that of a humidifier. Heat and moisture exchangers (artificial nose)
Applications of Aerosol Therapy Bland agents (sterile water, hypotonic, isotonic or hypertonic saline), various drugs.
A device that produces particulate matter that is delivered into a gas stream. Can be liquid or solids Nebulizer
Used viscous shear forces to draw water up the capillary tube into the gas stream to produce aerosol (mist). Mechanical (entrainment) nebulizers
Small volume nebulizer Used for short term medication
Which nebulizer is commonly used by outpatients receiving home therapy? Bulb-type handheld nebulizer
Large volume nebulizer Used to provide continuous aerosol therapy and are designed to use large bore tubing to maximize delivery.
The Babbington Nebulizers have the brand name _______ and _______. Solosphere and Hydrosphere
This device is separated into two channels, one pressures a glass sphere and the other forms small bubbles that are pushed up a capillary tube to a reservoir above the glass sphere. Babbington Nebulizer
______ nebulizer operates by using high-frequency sound waves to produce a fine aerosol. Ultrasonic
The components of a ultrasonic nebulizer includes: Radio frequency generator, shielded cable, piezoelectric crystal or transducer, reservoir chamber, and a fan
Hazards of ultrasonic nebulizer include: Nosocomial infections and electrical shock
Aerosol administration devices: Aerosol mask, trach mask, face tent, and Briggs adapter
Hazards of Aerosol Therapy Bronchospasm, overhydration, overheating of inspired gas, tubing condensation draining into the airway, delivery of contaminated aerosol to the patient
Similar to a simple oxygen mask, designed for large bore tubing, outlet ports are also large to facilitate evacuation of any exhaled aerosol aerosol mask
Designed to fit over a tracheostomy tube Trach mask
Commonly used in the recovery room following general anesthesia or for patients with facial burns Face tent
Also referred to as an aerosol T. Has two 22mm ports opposite one another and a 15 mm port right angles to them forming a T. Briggs adapter
Environmental devices used in the treatment of croup, epiglottis, and other pediatric upper airway disorders. Mist tent (pediatric aerosol tents)

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