Digestive system

Term Definition
Digestion breaking down and dissolving food into small parts.
Gastrointestinal (GI) pertaining to the stomach and intestines
Eupepsia Condition of normal digestion
Bradypepsia Condition of slow digestion
Dyspepsia aka indigestion Condition of difficult or painful digestion
Peritoneal Pertaining to the peritoneum
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
Peritoneopathy Disease condition of the peritoneum
Abdominalgia Pain in the abdomen
Abdominoplasty Surgical repair of the abdomen
Abdominocentesis Surgical puncture of the abdomen
Laparotomy Surgical incision of the abdomen
Laparorrhaphy Suturing the abdomen
Chemical digestion Breaking down solid food by dissolving*involves secretion by saliva
Suboral Pertaining to below the oral cavity
Intraoral Pertaining to within the oral cavity
Stomatalgia and stomatodynia Pain in the oral cavity
Stomatopathy Disease condition of the oral cavity
Herpetic stomatitis Inflammation of the oral cavity caused by herpes simplex virus 1 aka cold sores or fever blisters
Bilingual Pertaining to fluent in two languages
Orolingual Pertaining to the oral cavity and tongue
Sublingual and hypoglossal Pertaining to below the tongue
Glossitis Inflammation of the tongue
Glossopathy Disease condition of the tongue
Glossalgia and Glossodynia Pain in the tonuge
Glossorrhaphy Suturing the tongue
Glossotomy Surgical incision of the tongue
Glossectomy Surgical removal of the tongue
Buccal mucosa Pertaining to mucous membranes lining the inside of the bucca
Buccolingual Pertaining to a bucca and tongue
Buccal swab or buccal smear Pertaining to collecting cells from a cheek for DNA testing
Buccotomy Surgical incision of a bucca
Buccoplasty Surgical repair of a bucca
Palatoglossal Pertaining to a palate and tongue
Palatitis Inflammation of a palate(s)
Palatoplasty Surgical repair of a palate(s)
Palatorrhaphy Suturing a palate(s)
Palatectomy Surgical removal of a palate(s)
Gingivobuccal Pertaining to a gingiva and bucca
Gingivitis Inflammation of a gingiva
Gingivalgia Pain in the a gingiva
Gingivostomatitis Inflammation of the gingiva and oral cavity
Gingivoplasty Surgical repair of a gingiva
Labiolingual Pertaining to a
Buccotomy Surgical incision of a bucca
Buccoplasty Surgical repair of a bucca
Palatoglossal Pertaining to a palate and tongue
Palatitis Inflammation of a palate(s)
Palatoplasty Surgical repair of a palate(s)
Palatorrhaphy Suturing a palate(s)
Palatectomy Surgical removal of a palate(s)
Gingivobuccal Pertaining to a gingiva and bucca
Gingivitis Inflammation of a gingiva
Gingivalgia Pain in the gingiva
Gingivostomatitis Inflammation of the gingiva and oral cavity
Gingivoplasty Surgical repair of a gingiva
Gingivectomy Surgical removal of a gingiva
Labiolingual Pertaining to a labia and tongue
Labiogingival Pertaining to a labia and gingiva
Cheilosis Abnormal condition of a labia
Cheilitis Inflammation of a labia
Labioplasty and cheiloplasty Surgical repair of a labia
Cheilorrhaphy Suturing a labia
Mastication Chewing
Dentogingival Pertaining to a tooth and gingiva
Labiodental Pertaining to a labia and tooth
Dental caries Extreme tooth decay
Dentist Specialist in a tooth
Endodontist Specialist within a tooth
Periodontist Specialist around a tooth
Orthodontist Specialist straightening a tooth
Labioglossopharyngeal Pertaining to a labia tongue and pharynx
Pharyngopalatine Pertaining to the pharynx and palatine(s)
Pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx
Pharyngalgia Pain in the pharynx
Pharyngorrhagia Rapid flow of blood from the pharynx
Pharyngotomy Surgical incision of the pharynx
Pharyngostomy Artificial opening into the pharynx
Pharyngoplasty Surgical repair of the pharynx
Pharyngectomy Surgical removal of the pharynx
Deglutition Swallowing
Aphagia Condition of no swallowing
Dysphagia Condition of difficult or painful swallowing
Dysphasia Condition of difficult speaking
Esophagitis Inflammation of the esophagus
Esophagopathy Disease condition of the esophagus
Esophagalgia and esophagodynia Pain in the esophagus
Esophagorrhexis Rupture of the esophagus
Esophageal atresia Pertaining to (congenital) closure of the esophagus
Esophagogram A record of the esophagus
Esophagography Process of recording (x-raying) the esophagus
Esophagoscope Lighted instrument to view the esophagus
Esophagoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view the esophagus
Esophagorrhexis Rupture of the esophagus
Esophagotomy Surgical incision of the esophagus
Esophagostomy Artificial opening into the esophagus
Esophagoplasty Surgical repair of the esophagus
Esophagorrhaphy Suturing the esophagus
Esophagoesophageal anastomosis Pertaining to surgical connection of the esophagus to the esophagus
Hydrochloric acid Chemical digestion in the stomach includes
Stomatogastric Pertaining to the oral cavity and stomach
Nasogastric (NG) Pertaining to the nose and stomach
Gastritis Inflammation of the stomach
Esophagogastritis Inflammation of the esophagus and stomach
Gastralgia and gastrodynia Pain in the stomach
Gastropathy Disease condition of the stomach
Gastric atresia Pertaining to a (congenital) closure of the stomach
Gastrogram A record (x-ray) of the stomach
Gastrography Process of recording (x-raying) the stomach
Gastroscope Lighted instrument to view the stomach
Gastroscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view the stomach
Esophagogastroscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view the esophagus and stomach
Gastrorhexis Rupture of the stomach
Gastrorrhagia Rapid flow of blood from the stomach
Gastroplasty Surgical repair of the stomach
Esophagogastroplasty Surgical repair of the esophagus and stomach
Gastrotomy Surgical incision of the stomach
Gastrostomy Artificial opening of the stomach
Gastrectomy Surgical removal of the stomach
Sleeve gastrectomy Surgical removal of 75% of the stomach
Gastrorrhaphy Suturing the stomach
Gastropexy Surgical fixation of the stomach
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Pathology causing regurgitation of the stomach contents up the esophagus
Duodenum First section of the small intestine
Duodenitis Inflammation of the duodenum
Gastroduodenitis Inflammation of the stomach and duodenum
Duodenopathy Disease condition of the duodenum
Gastroduodenopathy Disease condition of the stomach and duodenum
Ulcer Erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
Ulcer perforation Tearing or ripping
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) Pathology causing ulcer(s) in the stomach and/or duodenum
Duodenal atresia Pertaining to (congenital) closure of the duodenum
Duodenotomy Surgical incision of the duodenum
Gastroduodenotomy Surgical incision of the stomach and duodenum
Duodenostomy Artificial opening into the duodenum
Gastroduodenostomy Artificial opening between the stomach and duodenum
Duodenectomy Surgical removal of the duodenum
Gastroduodenectomy Surgical removal of the stomach and duodenum
Duodenoplasty Surgical repair of the duodenum
Gastroduodenoplasty Surgical repair of the stomach and duodenum
Duodenorrhaphy Suturing the duodenum
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) Process of using a lighted instrument to view the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
Duodenoduodenal anastomosis Pertaining to surgical connection of the duodenum to the duodenum
Jejunum Second part of the small intestine
Jejunitis Inflammation of the jejunum
Duodenojejunitis Inflammation of the duodenum and jejunum
Jejunopathy Disease condition of of the jejunum
Jejunorrhaphy Suturing the jejunum
Jejunal atresia Pertaining to (congenital) closure of the jejunum
Jejunoplasty Surgical repair of the jejunum
Duodenojejunoplasty Surgical repair of the duodenum and jejunum
Jejunopexy Surgical fixation of the jejunum
Gastrojejunostomy Artificial opening between the stomach and jejunum
Duodenojejunostomy Artificial opening between the duodenum and jejunum
Jejunectomy Surgical removal of the jejunum
Duodenojejunectomy Surgical removal of the duodenum and jejunum
Jejunojejunal anastomosis Pertaining to surgical connection of the jejunum to the jejunum
Ileum Third section of the small intestine
Ileitis Inflammation of the ileum
Jejunoileitis Inflammation of the jejunum and ileum
Ileopathy Disease condition of the ileum
Ileoplasty Surgical repair of the ileum
Ileal atresia Pertaining to (congenital) closure of the ileum
Jejunoileal atresia Pertaining to (congenital) closure of the jejunum and ileum
Ileotomy Surgical incision of the ileum
Ileectomy Surgical removal of the ileum
Ileostomy Artificial opening into the ileum
Jejunoileostomy Artificial opening between the jejunum and ileum
Ileoileal anastomosis Pertaining to surgical connection of the ileum to the ileum
Small intestine Consists of the dudenum, jejunum, and ileum
Enteritis Inflammation of the small intestine
Gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
Dysentery Condition of painful small intestine
Enteralgia and enterodynia Pain in the small intestine
Enteropathogenic Pertaining to disease creation in the small intestine
Enterology The study of the small intestine
Gastroenterologist Specialist in the study of the stomach and small intestine
Enterogram A record (x-ray) of the small intestine
Enterography Process of recording (x-raying) the small intestine
Enterorrhexis Rupture of the small intestine
Enterorrhagia Rapid flow of blood from the small instestine
Enterotomy Surgical incision of the small intestine
Enteropexy Surgical fixation of the small intestine
Enterorrhaphy Suturing the small intestine
Cecum First section of the large intestine
Ileocecal Pertaining to the ileum and cecum
Cecitis Inflammation of the cecum
Ileocecitis Inflammation of the ileum and cecum
Cecotomy Surgical incision of the cecum
Cecostomy Artificial opening into the cecum
Cecoptosis Prolapse of the cecum
Cecorrhaphy Suturing the cecum
Cecopexy Surgical fixation of the cecum
Appendix Finger like projection off of the cecum
Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix
Appendorrhexis Rupture of the appendix*causes peritonitis
Laparoscopic appendectomy (appy) Surgical removal of the appendix using a lighted instrument inserted into the abdomen
Ascending colon Second section of the large intestine
Transverse colon Third section of the large intestine
Descending colon Fourth section of the large intestine
Sigmoid colon Fifth section of the large intestine
Sigmoiditis Inflammation of the sigmoid colon
Sigmoidoscope Lighted instrument to view the sigmoid colon
Sigmoidoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view the sigmoid colon
Sigmoidotomy Surgical incision of the sigmoid colon
Sigmoidostomy Artificial opening into the sigmoid colon
Sigmoidopexy Surgical fixation o the sigmoid colon
Sigmoidectomy Surgical removal of the sigmoid colon
Rectum Sixth section of the large intestine
Rectodynia Pain in the rectum
Rectorrhagia Rapid flow of blood from the rectum
Rectocele Herniation of the rectum
Rectopexy Surgical fixation of the rectum
Rectorrhaphy Suturing the rectum
Anus Last section of the large intestine and contains the sphincter
Anal fistula Pertaining to an abnormal passageway from the anus
Anoplasty Surgical repair of the anus
Proctalgia and Proctodynia Pain in the anus and rectum
Proctoptosis Prolapse of the anus and rectum
Proctorrhagia Rapid flow of blood of the anus and rectum
Proctologist Specialist in the study of the anus and rectum
Proctoscope Lighted instrument to view the anus and rectum
Proctosigmoidoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view the anus and rectum and sigmoid colon
Proctocele Herniation of the anus and rectum
Proctopexy Surgical fixation of the anus and rectum
Proctotomy Surgical incision of the anus and rectum
Proctorrhaphy Suturing the anus and rectum
Colitis Inflammation of the colon
Ulcerative colitis (UC) Inflammation of the colon and ulcers
Gastroenterocolitis Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine and colon
Colalgia and colodynia Pain in the colon
Colorrhagia Rapid flow of blood from the colon
Colonoscope Lighted instrument to view the colon
Colonoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view the colon
Colotomy Surgical incision of the colon
Colostomy Artificial opening into the colon
Coloplasty Surgical repair of the colon
Colopexy Surgical fixation of the colon
Colectomy Surgical removal of the colon
Hepatic lobes Liver sections
Bile Secretions from the bile
Hepatopathy Disease condition of the liver
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
Hepatoma Tumor or mass of the liver
Hepatocele Herniation of the liver
Hepatorrhexis Rupture of the liver
Hepatologist Specialist in the study of the liver
Hepatogram A record (x-ray) of the liver
Hepatography Process of recording (x-raying) the liver
Hepatopexy Surgical fixation of the liver
Hepatorrhaphy Suturing the liver
Hepatotomy Surgical incision of the liver
Hepatectomy Surgical removal of the liver
Cholecystopathy Disease condition of the gall bladder
Cholecystitis Inflammation of the gall bladder
Cholecystogram A record (x-ray) of the gall bladder
Cholecystography Process of recording (x-raying) the gall bladder
Cholecystoscope Lighted instrument to view the gall bladder
Cholecystoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view the gall bladder
Cholelithiasis Abnormal condition of gall stones
Cholelithotomy Surgical incision to remove gall stones
Cholelithectomy Surgical removal of gall stones
Cholelithotripsy Crushing gall stones
Cholelitholytic Break up or destruction of gall stones
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gall bladder using lighted instruments inserted into the abdomen
Choledochoscope Lighted instrument to view a bile duct
Choledochoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view a bile duct
Choledocholithiasis Abnormal condition of stone(s) in a bile duct
Choledocholithotripsy Crushing stones in a bile duct
Choledocholithotomy Surgical incision of a bile duct to remove stones
Choledocholithectomy Surgical removal of stones from a bile duct
Cholangicarcinoma Cancerous tumor or mass of a bile duct
Cholangiogram A record of a bile vessel
Cholangiography Process of recording a bile vessel
Pancreatopathy Disease condition of the pancreas
Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
Pancreatolithiasis Abnormal condition of stone(s) in the pancreas
Pancreatolithotomy Surgical incision to remove stone(s) in the pancreas
Pancreatolithectomy Surgical removal of stone(s) in the pancreas
Pancreatic carcinoma Pertaining to cancerous tumor or mass in the pancreas
Diverticula Small herniated pouches of the large intestine
Diverticulosis Abnormal condition of a diverticulum
Diverticulitis Inflammation of a diverticulum
Diverticulectomy Surgical removal of a diverticulum
Polyp Mucous membrane neoplasm
Benign neoplasms Harmless new growths*do not metastasize (spread)
Malignant neoplasms Dangerous new growths* They metastasize ("mets")
Polyposis Abnormal condition of polyp(s)
Polypectomy Surgical removal of a polyp(s)
Hernioplasty Surgical repair of a hernia
Herniotomy Surgical incision of a hernia
Herniorrhaphy Suturing incision of a hernia
Hiatal hernia (HH) Herniation of the stomach through the diaphragm
Inguinal hernia (IH) Herniation of the small intestine into the pelvic cavity
Umbilical hernia (UH) Herniation of the small intestine through the abdominal wall at he umbilicus
Strangulated hernia Herniation causing ischemia
Halitosis Bad breath
Adhesions Unusual scar tissue causing internal organs to stick together
Anorexia Condition of no appetite
Stoma Any artificial opening
Eructation Belching or burping
Emesis Pertaining to vomit(ing)
Hematemesis Vomitting blood
Hemoptysis Expectorating blood
Upper gastrointestinal ana barium swallow X-ray of the superior digestive tract after deglutition of contrast
Lower gastrointestinal (BE or BaE) barium enema X-ray of the inferior digestive tract after administration of a radiopaque contrast into the colon
Resection Surgical removal
Bowel resection Surgical removal of a portion of the small intestine or large intestine
Peristaltic activity or peristalsis Wave-like muscular contractions of the gastrointestinal tract that push food through the digestive tract
Borborygmos (bowel sounds) (CS) Gurgling and/or groaning sounds produced by peristaltic activity
Colic Painful spasms of the gastrointestinal tract
Stool (fecal matter) Semisolid waste eliminated through the anal sphincter
Bowel movement (BM) defecation Eliminating feces through the anal sphincter
Normal characteristics of feces BrownFormed
Flatulence or flatus Cas expelled through the anus
Diarrhea Loose watery feces
Constipation Difficult defecation
Impaction An accumulation of feces in the bowl
Ileus Bowel obstruction
Obstipation Constipation caused by a bowel obstruction
Melena Black, tarry, pungent fecal mater *melena indicates blood in the feces
Occult Blood that cannot be seen with the naked eye
Guaiac Test to detect occult blood in the stool
Brand names of guaiac test HemoccultIn-sure FITSeracult
Ova and parasites (O+P) Test to detect parasites and their eggs in a stool sample
Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) Stool guaiac assessment
Gastric lavage ("pumping the stomach") Irrigating of the stomach
Gastric gavage Percutaneous endoscopic gastostomy (PEG) Feeding tube in the stomach
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) hyperalimentation Administration of all nutrients IV
Cirrhosis Chronic degeneration of liver cells
Jaundice Yellow discoloration of the skin and or sclerae
Hyperbilirubinemia Blood condition of excessive bilirubin (necrotic hemolyzed erythrocytes
Ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
Absorption Movement of nutrients from the digestive system to the bloodstream
Postprandial Pertaining to after meals
Bariatrics Branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of obesity
ETOH Ethanol (alcohol)
BA Blood alcohol
N+V Nausea and vomitting
BS Blood sugarBowel soundsBreath sounds
IBD Inflammatory bowel disease
IBS aka spastic colon Irritable bowel syndrome
CD Crohn's disease
DRE Digital rectal exam
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
LFT Liver function test
LFT includes AST aka SGOTALT aka SPGTAlkaline phosphatase
Dx Diagnosis
Px Prognosis
Peritoneal Pertaining to the peritoneum
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
Peritoneopathy Disease condition of the peritoneum
Abdominalgia Pain in the abdomen
Abdominoplasty Surgical repair of the abdomen
Abdominocentesis Surgical puncture of the abdomen
Laparotomy Surgical incision of the abdomen
Laparorrhaphy Suturing the abdomen
Chemical digestion Breaking down solid food by dissolving
Suboral Pertaining to below the oral cavity
Intraoral Pertaining to within the oral cavity
Stomatalgia and stomatodynia Pain in the oral cavity
Stomatopathy Disease condition of the oral cavity
Herpetic stomatitis Inflammation of the oral cavity caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1)
Bilingual Pertaining to fluent in two languages
Orolingual Pertaining to the oral cavity and tongue
Sublingual and hypoglossal Pertaining to below the tongue
Glossitis Inflammation of the tongue
Glossopathy Disease condition of the tongue
Glossalgia and glossodynia Pain in the tongue
Glossorrhaphy Suturing the tongue
Glossotomy Surgical incision of the tongue
Glossectomy Surgical removal of the tongue
Buccal mucosa Pertaining to mucous membranes lining the inside of the bucca (cheeks)
Buccolingual Pertaining to a bucca and tongue
Buccotomy Surgical incision of a bucca
Buccoplasty Surgical repair of a bucca
Palatoglossal Pertaining to a palate and tongue
Palatitis Inflammation of a palate
Palatoplasty Surgical repair of a palate
Palatorrhaphy Suturing a palate
Palatectomy Surgical removal of a palate
Gingivobuccal Pertaining to a gingiva and bucca
Gingivitis Inflammation of a gingiva
Gingivalgia Pain in the gingiva
Gingivostomatitis Inflammation of the gingiva and oral cavity
Gingivoplasty Surgical repair of a gingiva
Gingivectomy Surgical removal of a gingiva
Labiolingual Pertaining to a labia and tongue
Labiogingival Pertaining to a labia and gingiva
Cheilosis Abnormal condition of a labia
Cheilitis Inflammation ofna labia
Labioplasty and cheiloplasty Surgical repair of a labia
Cheilorrhaphy Suturing a labia
Dentogingival Pertaining to a tooth and gingiva
Labiodental Pertaining to a labia and tooth
Dental caries Extreme tooth decay
Dentist Specialist is a tooth
Endodontist Specialist within a tooth
Peridontist Specialist around a tooth
Orthodontist Specialist straightening a tooth
Labioglossopharyngeal Pertaining to a labia, tongue, and pharynx
Pharyngopalatine Pertaining to the pharynx and palate

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