Bontrager chpt 2 worksheet

Question Answer
Most inferior and lateral part of the lung Costophrenic angle
Double walled membrane covering the lung Pleura
Double walled sac covering the heart Pericardial Sac
Rounded upper area of the lungs Apex
Contains 3 lobes Right lung
Half of the respiratory muscle Hemidiaphragm
Temporary organ that disappears in adult Thymus gland
Back portion of the soft palate Uvula
Ridge of lowest tracheal cartilage Carina
Junction of larynx with trachea C6
Most inferior and medial part of lung Cardiophrenic angle
Posterior to trachea, conveys food to stomach Esophagus
Central area where bronchi meet lungs Hilum
Twenty C-shaped rings of cartilage Trachea
Largest artery in the body Aorta
Deep Oblique canal dividing the lungs Fissure
Flap that prevents food and liquid from larynx Epiglottis
Adam's apple cartilage Thyroid Cartilage
Level of clavicles T4
Inferior concave area of each lung Base
Respiratory muscle diaphragm
Space between the two lungs Mediastinum
Contains two lobes left lung
Location of thyroid cartilage C5
Small air sacs and end of bronchi alveoli
What position would you use to demonstrate pathology situated posterior to the heart, great vessels, and sternum? Lateral Chest
When doing a lateral chest on a slender but broad shoulder patient, what adjustments should be made? midsagittal plane is parallel to IR, CR and IR should be lowered a minimum 1" from T7
Where is the CR on a Semi-Erect AP Chest? CR angled caudad to be perpendicular to long axis of sternumCR level of T7 3 to 4 inches below jugular notch
Which positions should be done if suspected plueral effusion or a possible pneumothorax? Lateral ducubitus
For possible fluid in the pleural cavity (pleural effusion), the suspected side should be? down
For possible small amounts of air in the pleural cavity (pneumothorax) the affected side should be? up
What is an alternate position for a lateral decubitus? the head be 10 degree lower than the hips to reduce the apical lift caused by the shoulder
What chest projection is done to rule out calcification and masses beneath the clavicles? AP Lordotic Projection
If patient is unable to stand, an AP semiaxial projection may be taken with the patient in a supine position. Where is the CR directed? CR is directed 15 degree to 20 degree cephalad to the midsternum
Which positions would be used to determine the size and contours of the heart and great vessels? Anterior Oblique Positions or the Posterior Oblique position
For an anterior oblique position the side of interest generally is the side _______________ from the IR. Farthest
An RAO provides the best visualization of the _________ lung Left
An anterior oblique can be used for studies of the heart and great vessels, this will require increase rotation, what would that be? 45 degree to 60 degree
For a possible pulmonary disease an Anterior Oblique position will require what kind of rotation? 15 degree to 20 degree
List the four important structures in the mediastinum 60 degree at LAO position
Posterior oblique projections provide best visualization of the side __________ to the IR Closest
A RPO position corresponds to the __________ LAO position
A LPO position corresponds to the __________ RAO position
Why does the heart appear larger on posterior oblique? Because is is further from the IR
Which position would best demonstrate the epiglottis ? Lateral Position Upper Airway
What type of breathing instructions are given on an upper air way? Slow deep inspiration to ensure filling trachea and upper airway with air
Where should you position the IR in an Lateral upper airway projection? Place top of IR at level of EAM.
Where is the CR directed in an upper airway projection? CR centered of IR at level C6 or C7 midway between laryngeal prominence of thyroid cartilage and the jugular notch
In an AP projection upper airway how should the IR be positioned? Raise chin up so that the acanthiomeatal line is perpendicular to the IR
Where is the CR positioned in an AP projection upper airway? Center of IR at level of T1-2 1" above jugular notch
What projection should the mandible superimpose the base of the skull with spine aligned with the center of the film? AP projection Upper Airway
In a upper airway projection, if the distal larynx and trachea are the primary area of interest, where should the CR be? upper jugular notch T1-T2
Describe the way optimum density (brightness) of the lungs and mediastinal structures can be determined on a PA chest radiograph. Should be able to see faint outlines of at least middle and upper vertebrae and ribs through the heart and other mediastinal structures.
List 4 possible pathological conditions that suggest the need for both inspiration and expiration PA chest radiographs Small pneumothorax, Fixation or lack of normal diaphragm movement, presence of a foreign body, distinguishing between opacity in rib or lung
List 3 reasons why chest radiographs should be taken with the patient in erect position. To allow diaphragm to move down farther, to show possible air and fluid in chest, to prevent engorgement and hypermia of the pulmonary vessels
What structure is used to determine rotation on a PA chest? Symmetric appearance and location of sternoclavicular joints.
Traditional central ray centering technique for the chest is to place the top of the image receptor _______ inches above the shoulders. 1 1/2 inches to 2 inches
The CR is placed at the level of the ___ vertebra for a PA chest projection. T7
Why should a left lateral be performed unless departmental protocol indicates otherwise? It better demonstrates the heart region
To prevent clavicles from obscuring the apices on an AP projection of the chest, the central ray should be angled ____(cauded or cephalad) so that it is perpendicular to the _______. Cauded, Sternum
What position/projection would be used for a patient who is too ill or weak to stand for an AP lordotic projection? AP semi axial projection, CR 15 – 20 degrees cephalad
For certain studies of the heart, ________(right/left) anterior oblique requires a rotation of ___________ left, 60 degrees
An erect chest PA radiograph aids the patient to achieve full inspiration and helps to prevent _____ and _____ of the pulmonary vessels. Engorgement and Hyperemia
A patient with severe pleural effusion comes to the radiology department for a chest x-ray. AEC will not be used. How should the technologist alter the manual exposure settings for this patient? Increase the kV slightly

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